Living Rocks of Mexico
Ariocarpus Literature References


The information included on this page is not intended to cover every reference to Ariocarpus in print, but to provide a listing of scientific papers, and journal articles relating to the genus. A number of papers are available on line, more will follow. Thanks to Larry Mitich & Jan G. Bruhn whose earlier compilation in the Cactus & Succulent Journal (US) Vol. 49, 1977, was invaluable in compiling this list. 

Anderson, E. F. 1958. A recent field trip in search of Ariocarpus. Cactus and Succulent Journal of America 30(6):171-174.

Anderson, E. F. 1958. En Busca de Ariocarpus. Cactáceas y Suculentas Mexicanas 3(4) :79-84. (A Spanish version of the preceding paper.)

Anderson, E. F. 1959. Auf der suche nach Ariocarpus. Kakteen und andere Sukkulenten 10(4) :49-53. (A German version of the two preceding papers.)

Anderson, E. F. 1959. A taxonomic revision of the genus Ariocarpus (Order Cactales, Family Cactaceae). M.A. Thesis. Claremont Graduate School, Claremont, California.

Anderson, E. F. 1960. A revision of Ariocarpus (Cactaceae). I. The status of the proposed genus Roseocactus. American Journal of Botany 47: 582-589. Also published in Kakteen and andere Sukkulenten 12(9-10): 138-139 148-152 (1961).

Anderson, E. F. 1961. A study of the proposed genus Roseocactus. Cactus and Succulent Journal of America 33(4):122-127.

Anderson, E. F. 1961. Un estudio sobre el género propuesto Roseocactus. Cactáceas y Suculentas Mexicanas 6(1): 3-11. (A Spanish version of the preceding paper.)

Anderson, E. F. 1961.A taxonornic revision of Ariocarpus, Lophophora, Pelecyphora and Obregonia. Doctoral dissertation, Claremont Graduate School, Claremont, California.

Anderson, E. F. 1962. A revision of Ariocarpus (Cactaceae). II. The status of the proposed genus Neogomesia. American Journal of Botany 49(6) :615-622.

Anderson, E. F. 1963. A study of the proposed genus Neogomesia. Cactus and Succulent Journal of America 35(5):138-145.

Anderson, E. F. 1963. A revision of Ariocarpus (Cactaceae). III. Formal taxonomy of the subgenus Roseocactus. American Journal of Botany 50:724-732.

Anderson, E. F. 1964. A revision of Ariocarpus (Cactaceae). IV. Formal taxonomy of the subgenus Ariocarpus. American Journal of Botany 51:144-151.

Anderson, E. F. 1965. A taxonomic revision of Ariocarpus (Cactaceae). Cactus and Succulent Journal of America 37(2): 39-49.

Anderson, E. F. 1967. A study of the proposed genus Obregonia (Cactaceae). American Journal of Botany 54:897-903. (Obregonia is compared with Ariocarpus and other cactus genera, and the author concludes that Obregonia is an intermediate form between Ariocarpus and Lophophora and deserves generic rank.)

Anderson, E. F. 1988. A systematic study of Obregonia. Cactus and Succulent Journal of America 40(3):1O1-107. (See previous reference)

Anderson, E. F. 1999. Ariocarpus: Some Reminiscences.  Cact. Succ. J. (U S )Vol. 71 (1999). No .4, p180-190.

Anderson, E. F. and N. H. Boke. 1969. The genus Pelecyphora (Cactaceae): Resolution of a controversy. American Journal of Botany 56:314-326. (Ariocarpus strobiliformis is here assigned to Pelecyphora as P. strobiliformis. Ariocarpus aselliforme is a synonym of P. aselliformis.) 

Anderson, E. F. and Fitz Maurice, W. A. 1997. Ariocarpus Revisited. Haseltonia 5: 1-20. The latest major revision of the genus.

Anderson , M. 1999. Ariocarpus Cultivars: An Overview of Cristates, Hybrids, Monstrose Forms and Other Oddities Cact. Succ. J. (U S )Vol. 71 (1999). No .4, p191-200.

Backeberg, C. 1959. Notes on Neogomesia, Pediocactus, Utahia, Nauajoa and Pilocanthus (Cactaceae). National Cactus and Succulent Journal 14:63-87.

Bailey, G. Miller, J. and Smith, M. 2004. Ariocarpus bravoanus - On the edge. Living Rocks of Mexico, Sept 29th 2004.

Berger, A. 1925. A new genus of Cactaceae. Gardener's Chronicle, 3rd Series, 77:414-416. (Roseocactus, now considered a synonym of Ariocarpus.)

Berger, A. 1925. Roseocactus, a new genus of Cactaceae. Journal of Washington Academy of Science 15:43-48.  (See previous reference)

Bloom, E. V. 1960. La estructura interna de Ariocarpus fissuratus. Cactáceas y Suculentas Mexicanas 5(3) :62-85. (A histological study.)

Boedeker, Friederich. 1930. Ariocarpus scapharostrus Boed., sp.n. Monatsschrift fur Kakteenkunde 2 :60-61.

Braga, D. L. and J. L. McLaughlin. 1969. Cactus alkaloids. V. Isolation of hordenine and N-methyltyramine from Ariocarpus retusus.Planta Medica 17(1) :87-94.

Bruhn, J. C. 1975. Phenethylamines of Ariocarpus scapharostrus. Phytochemistry 15:2509-2510.

Bruhn, J. C. 1975. Phenethylamines of Ariocarpus scapharostrus. Phytochemistry.

Bruhn, J. C. and C. Bruhn. 1973. Alkaloids and ethnobotany of Mexican Peyote cacti and related species. Economic Botany 27(2) :241-251. Data is included for Ariocarpus agavoides)

Castaneda, M. 1941. A new cactus. Cactus and Succulent Journal of America 13:98-99. (Neogomesia agavoides, now a synonym of Ariocarpus agavoides.)

Coulter, John Merle. 1894. Preliminary revision of the North American species of Cactus, Anhalonium, and Lophophora. Contributions from the U. S. National Herbarium 3(2):91-132. (The Anhalonium species discussed by Coulter are now placed in Ariocarpus.)

Dixon 1899. The Phys. Action of alkaloids of Anhalonium lewinii. Journal of Physiology 25: 69

Dominguez, X. A., R. H. Ramirez, 0. L. Ugaz, J. Garcia D., and R. Ketcham. 1968. Chemical study of the cactus Ariocarpus retusus. Planta Medica 16(2):182-183. (Retusine, a flavanoid, and /3-sitosterol were isolated.)

Dominguez, X. A., P. Rojas, M. Gutiérrez, N. Armenta and G de Lara. 1969. Estudio quimico preliminar de 31 cactáceas. Revista de Ia Sociedad Quimica de Mexico 13(1) :8A-12A. (Data are included for Ariocarpus retusus and A. trlgonus.)

Duursma, C. D. 1928. Ariocarpus lloydii. Succulenta 10:153-154.

Engelmann, George. 1859. Cactaceae of the Boundary. Report of the United States and Mexican Boundary Survey, Vol. 2, Senate Ex. Doe, No. 108, Washington, D. C., 1859. (Plate 16 shows Mammillaria fissurata, now Ariocarpus fissuratus.)

Fitz Maurice, W A , and T E Davis 1987 Fieldnotes Cact Succ J (U S) 59 144-145.Notes on Ariocarpus bravoanus ssp. hintonii near Matehuala.

Fitz Maurice, W A , and B. Fitz Maurice. 1999. Fieldnotes Cact Succ J (U S) 71 271-272..New Locations for Ariocarpus agavoides.

Furst, Peter T. 1971. Ariocarpus retusus, the 'False Peyote' of Huichol Tradition. Economic Botany 25(2):182-187.

Furst, Peter T. 1972. To find our life: Peyote among the Huichol Indians of Mexico. In: P. Furst, editor, Flesh of the Gods. Praeger Publishers, New York, pp. 136-184. (Primarily on the use of Lophophora williarnsii, but information on Ariocarpus retusus is included.)

Gielsdorf, Karl. 1927. Eine recht interessante liebhaber-kaktecn-art, Ariocarpus trigonus K. Schum. Garteriflora 76:179.

Glass, Charles and Robert Foster. 1974. Ariocarpus, Living Rock Cactus. Cactus and Succulent Journal of America 46(4):172-174.

Gonzalez Q., L. 1972. Las Cactáceas Subfósiles de Tehuacán, Pue. Cactáceas y Suculentas Mexicanas 17(1):3-15. (On the cacti found during excavations in the Tehuacán Valley, one of which was determined as Ariocarpus retusus.)

Habermann, V. 1976, Ariocarpus retusus. Kaktusy 76 12(5):99-104.

Halda, J. J. 1998.  New System of the genus Ariocarpus Scheidweiler. Acta Mus. Richnov. 5(1): 34-39.

Hernandez, H. M. & Anderson, E. F. (1992), A new Species of Ariocarpus (Cactaceae) Bradleya 10: 1-4.(The first description of Ariocarpus bravoanus.)

Hernandez-Barrera,J T 1992 Aspectos biologicos de Ariocarpus agavoides (Castañeda) Anderson Cact Suc Méx 37 40-45.

Heffter, A. 1894. Ueber Pellote. Em Beitrag zur pharmakologischen Kenntniss der Cacteen. Archiv Fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie 34:65-86. (Chemical and pharmacological data on Anhalonium lewinii and Anhalonium williamsii, both now referred to Lophophora, and Anhalonium fissuratum and Anhalonium prismaticum, now Ariocarpus fissuratus and A. retusus.)

Henning 1888. Eine giftige Kaktee, Anhalonium lewinii. Gartenflora 37:410-411

Kauder, E. 1899. Ueber Alkaloide aus Anhalonium lewinii. Arch. der Pharm. 237- 190-198

Kayser, Konrad, 1931. Em neuer Ariocarpus. Gartenschonheit 12:33, February. (Ariocarpus strobiliformis). (Ariocarpus strobiliformis is at present considered as a species of Pelecyphora)

Kleinschmidt, A, A. (Probably 1897) Anhalonium sulcatum. Southern Florist and Gardener 4(4):63. (Anhalonium sulcatum is a synonym of Ariocarpus kotschoubeyanus)

Koenig, G, 1928. Ariocarpus trigonus K. Sch. Zeitschrift fur Sukkulentenkunde 3.274-275.

Landry, S.I. 1889. Notes on Anhalonium lewinii. Therap. Gazette 4: 16

Laras, A. 1999. Growing Ariocarpus From Seed. Cact. Succ. J. (U S )Vol. 71 (1999). No .4, p210-215

Lee, M. H. 1937. Ariocarpus. Cactus and Succulent Journal of America 9(5):71-77.

Lemaire, Charles. 1839. Anhalonium prismaticum. L'Horticulteur Universel 1:231-237, plate 30.

Lemaire, Charles. 1841. Anhalome prismatique. Anhalonium prismaticum. Herbier General de L'Amateur, Series 2, vol. 2, plate 16 plus 4 pages of text. (Anhalonium prismaticum is now called Ariocarpus retusus.)

Lemaire, Charles. 1859. Nouvelle Espèce D'Anhalonium (A. areolosum Nob.) L'Illustration Horticole 6:55-56. (Anhalonium areolosum is a synonym of Ariocarpus retusus.).

Lemaire, Charles 1869. Histoire, Caractéres, cultures et espéces du genre Anhalonium L'Illustrahon Horticole 16.69-76, figures 1-4. (Anhalonium is now a synonym of Ariocarpus. See ref. 13.)

Leuenberger, Beat, 1974. Testa surface characters of Cactaceae. Preliminary results of a scanning electron microscope study. Cactus and Succulent Journal of America 46(4): 175-180. Cover picture is of Ariocarpus trigonus.

Lewin, Louis 1888. Anhalonium lewinii. Therapeutic Gazette

Lewin, Louis 1894. Ueber Anhalonium lewinii. Arch. exper. Path. Pharm. 24: 401-411

Lewin, Louis 1894. Ueber Anhalonium lewinii und andere Cacteen. Arch.exper. Path. Pharm. 34: 374-391

Lewin, Louis 1894. Ueber Anhalonium lewinii und andere giftige Cacteen.Bericht der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft 12: 283

Lux, A, and R Stanik 1983. Hybridisation in der Gattung Ariocarpus Scheidweiler Kakt Sukk 34 267- 271.

Lowry, W. E. 1935. Ariocarpus. Cactus and Succulent Journal of America 7:19-21.

Lüthy Jonas M. (Italian Text) 2000 Ariocarpus fissuratus, Una Specie Variabile Cactus & Co Vol 4(4)2000, 192-202.

Lüthy Jonas M. (English Text) 2000 Ariocarpus fissuratus, A variable species Cactus & Co Vol 4(4)2000, 192-202.

Marshall, William T. 1946. Revision of the genus Ariocarpus. Cactus and Succulent Journal of America 18:55-56.

Marshall, William T. 1947. A new genus of Cactus. National Horticulture Magazine 26:188. (Neogomesia agavoides Castaneda.)

Marshall, William T. 1947. Neogomesia Castaneda genus nova. The Cactus and Succulent Journal of Great Britain. Vol. 9(2):29.

Martinez, J G, H Suzán A, and C A Salazar O. 1993. Aspectos ecologicos y demograficos de Ariocarpus trigonus (Weber) Schumann Cact. Suc. Mex. 38 30-38

McCleary, J. A. and D. L. Walkington. 1964. Antimicrobial activity of the Cactaceae, Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 91(5): 361-369. (Data is included for Ariocarpus fissuratus, A. retusus and A. trigonus.)

McCleary, James A. and David L. Walkington. 1962. A potential economic use for cacti. Cactus and Succulent Journal of America 34(5): 145-148. (The antibiotic activity of several cacti, including Ariocarpus fissuratus, is demonstrated.)

McLaughlin, J. L. 1969. Cactus Alkaloids, VI. Identification of Hordenine and N-Methyltyramine in Ariocarpus fissuratus varieties fissuratus and lloydii. Lloydia 32(3): 392-394.

Merck 1894. Annalen. 23 und 23-24, 1898

Meyrán, J. 1956. Notas sobre plántulas de Cactácaes. Cactáceas y Suculentas Mexicanas 1(6):107-112 (Information is included on the seedling of Ariocarpus trigonus.)

Meyrán, J. 1958. Observaciones sobre el desarrollo de algunas Cactáceas. Cactáceas y Suculentas Mexicanas 3(3) :61-62. (Tubercles of Roseocactus kotschoubeyanus are discussed and illustrated.)

Michaelis, Paul. 1896. Beitrage zur vergleichenden Anatomie der Gattungen Echinocactus, Mammillaria und Anhalonium mit besonderer Betrachtung einzelner Arten der Gattung Anhalonium bezuglich ihrer Zugehorigkeit. zu derselben. Halle a S., Cebauer-Schwetsch. 39 pages, 3 plates. (Dissertatlion, Erlangen 1895). (On Anhalonium,fissuratum and Anhalonium prismaticum, now Ariocarpus fissuratus and A. retusus.)  

Mitich, Larry W. 1964. The living rock, a gem from Texas and Mexico. Cactus Points 10(4) :9-10.

Neal, J. M. and J. L. McLaughlin. 1970. Cactus alkaloids. IX. Isolation of N-methyl-3,4-dimethoxy-p-phenethylainine and N-methyl-4-.methoxy-f3-phenethylamine from Ariocarpus retusus. Lloydia 33(3):395-398.

Neal J. M., P. T. Sato, C. L. Johnson and J. L. McLaughlin. 1971. Cactus alkaloids. X. Isolation of Hordenine and N-Methyltyramine from Arlocarpus kotschoubeyanus Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 60(3) :477-478.  

Neudecker T. 1985. Crossing Experiments Within the Genus Ariocarpus. Scheidweiler. B.C.S.S. Journal Volume 3 (1) 14-17

Norquist, D. 0. and J. L. McLaughlin. 1971. Cactus alkaloids. VIII. Isolation of N-Methyl-3, 4-dimethoxy-/3-phenethylamine from Ariocarpus fsssuratus var. fissuratus. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 59(12): 1840-1841.

Ochoterena, I. 1928. Nota acerca de la identiflcación botánica de algunas de las plantas conocidas vulgarmente con el nombre de peyote, con particular referenda a las que pertenecen a Ia familia de las cactáceas. Revista Mexicana de BiologIa 6(3) :95-106. (On Lophophora, Ariocarpus, and Astrophytum.)

Patoni, Carlos. 1912. Ariocarpus flssuratus K. Sch. Anhalonium fissuratum Engelm. Boletin. Alianza Cientifica Universal. Durango 3(4): 151

Prentiss & Morgan 1895. Anhalonium lewinii A Study of the Drug With Special Reference to its Psychical Action Upon Man. Therapeutic Gazette 191

Prentiss & Morgan 1897. Mescal buttons, Anhalonium lewinii. Medical Record

Prentiss & Morgan 1897. The Alkaloids of Anhalonium lewinii With Notes Upon Therapeutic Uses. Med. Soc. Columbia

Purpus, J. A. 1913. Arlocarpus trigonus K. Schum. Monatsschrift für Kakteenkunde 23:65-69.

Purpus, J.A. 1914. Mimikry bei Kakteen. Moeller's Deutsche Gartner-Zeitung 29(7):73-78. (Mimicry in cacti includes eight illustrations of Ariocarpus lloydii, A. trigonus, A. kotschoubeyanus and A. fissuratus in habitat.)

R. 1931. Ariocarpus kotschoubeyanus K. Sch. Succulenta 13:160-161.

Reznik, Hans. 1957. Die Pigmente der Centrospermen als systematisches Element. II. Untersu­chungen über das ionophoretische Verhalten. Planta 49:406-434. (Data is included for Ariocarpus kotschoubeyanus.)

Riha, Jan. 1974. Ariocarpus scapharostrus Boed. Kaktusy 74, 10(4) .83-84. (The origin and cultural hints are given for this very rare species.) (Published in Czech.)

Rose, J. N. 1911. Studies in Mexican and Central American plants. 7. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 13(9):303-312. (Page 308: 'A new species of Ariocarpus from Mexico.' Also plates 62 and 63.) (Ariocarpus lloydii, now regarded as a variety of A. fissuratus.

Safford , W. E. 1909. Cactaceae of Northeastern and Central Mexico, together with a synopsis of the principal Mexican genera. Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution for 1908, pages 525-563.

Scheidweiler, M. J. 1838. Descriptio diagnostica nonnullarum Cacteanim quae a domino Galeotti in provinciis Potosi et Cuanaxato regni Mexicani inveniuntur. Genus Ariocarpus. Bulletins de l'Academie Royal des Sciences et Belles-Lettres de Bruxelles 5:491-497.

Schlange, K. C. 1934. Ariocarpus trigonus Desert Plant Life 6(3) :41. 

Schmidt, Viktor. 1927. Etwas ueber die Pfiege von Ariocarpus. Zettschrift fur Sulkulentenkunde 3(3):55-58.

Schuetz, B. 1976. Roubovani Ariokarpusu, Kaktusy 76 12(3):57-58. (Grafting of tiny Ariocarpus seedlings on Pereskiopsis.

Schultes, R. E 1937. Peyote (Lophophora williamsii) and plants confused with it. Botanical Mu­seum Leaflets, Harvard University, 5(5) :61-88. (Some species of Ariocarpus have also been called 'peyote'. See also ref. 57.)

Schumann, Karl. 1897. Ariocarpus sulcatus K. Sch. Monatsschrift fur Kakteenkunde 7:9-10. (Published anonymously.) (A. sulcatus is a synonym of A. kotschoubeyanus.)

Schumann, Karl. 1898. Correspondence. Cactus Journal, London, 1(3):44. (Comments on the priority of the genus Ariocarpus Scheidweiler.)

Schumann, Karl 1898 Die Gattung Ariocarpus (Anhalonium). Engler's Botanische Jahrbucher (fur Systematik,
Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie) 24(5): 541-567

Schumann K. M. 1901. Blühende Kakteen Iconographiae Cactacearum Im Auf Trage, J Neumann, Neudam.

Sotomayor M., Arredondo A. and Martinez M. 2000 Neue Fundorte von Ariocarpus agavoides. Kakt. und and. Sukk.51 (5), 113-118 

Spaeth, Ernst 1910. Ueber die Anhalonium Alkaloide Anhalin und Mescalin. Monatschrift fur Chemie 13: 93-111

Spaeth, Ernst 1921. Die Konstitution des Pellotins, Anhalonidins und Anhalins. Monatschrift fur Chemie 17: 97-115

Spaeth, Ernst 1931. Ueber die Anhalonium Alkaloide Anhalin und Mezcalin.Monatschrift fur Chemie 40: 129 ff.

Spaeth, Ernst 1931. Ueber die Konstitution von Pellotin und Anhalonidin.Bericht der Chemischen Gesellschaft 65: 1778-1785

Spaeth & Gange 1913. Ueber die Anhalonium alkaloide Anhalonin und Lophophorin. Monatschrift fur Chemie 44: 103-113

Speir, W W., V. Mihranian and J. L. McLaughlin. 1970. Cactus aklaloids. VII. Isolation of hordenine and N-methyl-3,4-diinethoxy-p-phenethylamine from Ariocarpus trigonus. Lloydia 33(1):15-18.

Steidle, K. 1967. Ariocarpus retusus Scheidweiler. I.T.S.L. (Internationaal Tijdschrift voor Succulentenliefhebbers) 1(9): 103-104.

Steidle, K. 1967. Ariocarpus scapharostrus. I.T.S.L. (Internationaal Tijdschrift voor Succulenten­hdfliebbers) 1(12): 133-134.

Stuppy, W. & Taylor, N.P. 1989. A New Variety of Ariocarpus fissuratus (Cactaceae)  Bradleya 7: 84-88. First description of A. bravoanus ssp. hintonii

Suguri & Sato 1996. Ariocarpus Handbook, cultivated in Japan

Thompson, C. H. 1898. The species of cacti commonly cultivated under the generic name Anhalonium. Annual Report of the Missouri Botanical Garden 9.127-135. Also in Cactus Journal 1(9): 134-135,   (l0):152-153, (11):162-163, 1898. (On Ariocarpus and Lophophora.)

Vaupel, Frederich. 1911. Ariocarpus lloydii Rose spec. nov. Monatsschrift fur Kakteenkunde 21: 170.     (A. lloydii is now considered a variety of A. fissuratus.)

Voldan, M. 1976.Ariocarpus trigonus var. minor Voldan var. nova, Kaktusy 78, 12(1) :3-8:

Voldan, NI. 1976. Ariocarpus trigonus (Weber) K. Schumann var. minor Voldan, eine neue varietaet. Kakteen und andere Sukkulenten 27(11): 242-243.

Voss, A. 1930. Ariocarpus fissuratus. Journal of Cactus and Succulent Society of America 2(2) :293.

Walton, F. A. 1898. A group of rare cacti. Cactus Journal, London, 1(8):118-119. Published anonymously. (Ariocarpus kotschoubeyanus, A. retusus and A. fissuratus are featured and illustrated.)

Werdermann, Erich. 1927. Em neuer interessanter Ariocarpus aus Mexiko. Zeitschrift für Sukkulentenkunde 3:126-128. (Ariocarpus strobiliformis, n. sp.) (A. strobiliformis is now transferred to Pelectyphora.) 

Werdermann, Erich. 1928, Die Blute von Ariocarpus strobiliformis Werd. Zeitschrift für Sukkulentenkunde 3:306-307.

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