Living Rocks of Mexico
Revision of the Genus Ariocarpus
  home [ On Line ] [ Literature ]  


This article is reproduced form The Cactus and Succulent Journal (U.S.), Vol. 18 (1946). No .4, p55-56,. with the  kind permission of the Editor.



In the Cactus Journal IX:77, November, 1937, I suggested that the genera Obregonia Fric and Strombocactus B. & R. should be united with Ariocarpus because these genera shared, in common with Ariocarpus, the characters of horny tubercles, rosette arrangement, relatively small central flowers from the wool bearing central areoles and smooth or nearly smooth fruit almost hidden in the wool. In 'Cactaceae' 134, 1941, I suggested that the genus Encephalocarpus, which also shared all of these common factors should also be united with Ariocarpus.

To accomplish this I propose that the generic description of Ariocarpus be emended as follows with these new combinations:

Ariocarpus Scheidweiler

Bull. Acad. Sci. Brux. 5:491. 1839

Emended Marshall

Anhalonium Lemaire, Cact. Gen. Nov. Sp. 1. 1939.

Strombocactus Britton and Rose, Cactaceae III: 106. 1922.

Obregonia Fric, Zeits. f. Sukkulent. XXXV: 184. 1925.

Roseocactus Berger, Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci. XV:43. 1925.

Encephalocarpus Berger, 1928.

Plants with long, beet-like tap roots, the portion above ground disc-like, sub-globose or globose, with more or less triangular or prismatic tubercles which are grooved above (Sub-genus Roseocactus) or ungrooved, and then bearing small areoles on the upper face or apex of the tubercles. Flowers diurnal, lasting more than one day, fully expanded, borne on areoles near center of the plant from a mass of wool. Fruit a berry, smooth or bearing a few small scales, retained for a long time in the wool of the areoles.

Type species: Ariocarpus retusus Scheidweiler.


Tubercles grooved on upper side (Sub-genus Roseocactus Berger).
  Tubercles cartilaginous: Plant body above ground flattened.
    Plant small, 3 to 5 cm. in diameter.....A. Kotschoubeyanus
    Plant larger, 10 to 15 cm. in diameter.
      Tubercles rhomboid; flower purple.....A. fissuratus
      Tubercles triangular; flower white.....var. Lloydii
  Tubercles chartaceous; plant cone-shaped.....A.strobiliformis
Tubercles not grooved on upper side (Sub-genus Euariocarpus)
  Plant body disc-shaped.....A. disciformis
  Plant body sub-globose
    Areoles spinescent.
      Areole on apex of tubercle.....A. denegri
      Areole on upper surface of tubercle.....A. furfuraceus
    Areoles not spinescent
      Tubercle with membranous margin.....A. scapharostrus
      Tubercle without membranous margin
        Tubercle triangular-pyramidal.....A, retusus
        Tubercle flattened on upper surface, keeled below.....A.trigonus


Ariocarpus Kotschoubeyanus (Lemaire) Schumann in Engler and Prantl, Pflanzenfam. Nachtr, 259. 1897.

Anhalonium Kotschoubeyanum Lemaire. Bull. Cercle. Confer. Hort. Dep. Seine. 1842.

Anhalonium sulcatum Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849 5. 1850.

Cactus Kotschubeyi Kuntze, Rev. Gen. P1. I: 260. 1891.

Ariocarpus sulcatus Schumann, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 7:9. 1897.

Roseocactus Kotschoubeyanus Berger, Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci. XV:43. 1925.

Ariocarpus fissuratus (Engelmann) Schumann, Engler & Prantl. 3; 6A:195. 1894.

Mammillaria fissurata Eng., Proc. Amer. Acad. 3:270. 1856.

Anhalonium fissuratum Eng., Cact. Mex. Bound. 75. 1859.

Anhalonium Engelmannii Lemaire, Cactees. 42. 1868.

Ariocarpus Lloydii Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 13:308. 1911.

Roseocactus fissuratus Berger, Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci. V:43. 1925.

Roseocactus Lloydii Berger, Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci. XV:43. 1925.

Ariocarpus strobiliformis Werdermann. Zeitschrift f. Sukkulentenk. 1927.

Encephalocarpus strobiliformis Berger. 1928.

Ariocarpus disciformis (De Candolle) Marshall, comb. nov.

Mammillaria disciformis De Candolle, Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris. 17:114. 1828.

Echinocactus turbiniformis Pfeiffer, Allg. Gartenz. 6:275. 1838.

Echinofossulocactus turbiniformis Lawrence in Loudon Gard. Mag. 17:318. 1841.

Mammillaria turbinata Hooker in Curtis's Bot. Mag. 69: p1. 3984. 1843.

Cactus disciformis Kuntze, Rev. Gen. P1. 1:260. 1891.

Cactus turbinatus Kuntze, Rev. Gen. P1. 1:261. 1891.

Anhalonium turbiniforme Weber, Diet. Hort. Bois 90. 1893.

Echinocactus disciformis Schumann in Engler & Prant. 3; 6A: 189. 1894.

Strombocactus disciformis B. & R. Cactaceae III: 106. 1922.

Ariocarpus Denegrii (Fric) Marshall, comb. nov.

Obregonia Denegri Fric, Zeits. f. Sukkulent. XXXV: 184. 1925.

Ariocarpus furfuraceus (Watson) Thompson.

Mammillaria furfuracea S. Watson, Proc. Amer. Acad. 25: 150. 1890.

Anhalonium furfuraceum Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3:130. 1894.

Ariocarpus furfuraceus Thompson, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 9:130. 1898.

Ariocarpus scapharostrus Bödeker, Kakteen 11:60. 1930.

Ariocarpus retusus Scheidweiler, Bull. Acad. Sci. Brux. 5 :492. 1838.

Anhalonium prismaticum Lemaire, Cact. Gen. Nov. Sp. 1. 1839.

Anhaloniurn retusum Saim-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1844. 15. 1845.

Anhalonium elongatum Saim-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849:77. 1850.

Anhalonium areolosum Lemaire, Illust. Hort. 6:Misc. 35. 1859.

Anhalonium pulvilligerum Lemaire. Illust. Hort. 16:Misc. 72. 1869.

Mammillaria elongata Hemsley, Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 1:509. 1880. Not De Candolle 1828.

Mammillaria areolosa Hemsley, Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 1:503. 1880.

Mammillaria prismatica Hemsley, Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 1:519. 1880.

Cactus prismaticus Kuntze. Rev. Gen. P1. 1:261. 1891.

Ariocarpus pulvilligerus Schumann, Bot. Jahr. Engler 24:550. 1898.

Ariocarpus prismaticus Cobbold, Journ. Hort. Home Farm. 111:46:332. 1903.

Ariocarpus trigonus (Weber) Schumann.

Anhalonium trigonum Weber, Dict. Hort. Bois. 90. 1893.

Ariocarpus trigonus Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 606. 1898.

---------- end of page ----------