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New System of the Genus Ariocarpus Scheidweiler
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Reproduced from Halda, J. J.: Synopsis of the genus Ariocarpus Scheidweiler. Acta Mus. Richnov. 5(1): 34-39 (1998).ISBN 80-86076-08-3.

Josef J. Halda

Sedloñov 125, CZ-517 82 Sedloñov, Ceská republka

Ariocarpus Scheidweiler is revised; a genus is divided into four subgenera and two sections. Several new taxonomical changes are made.

Genera Ariocarpus, Encephalocarpus, Obregonia, Pelecyphora a Strombocactus create a morphologic complex, compound of systematically very similar species. This fact was mentioned by Marshall (1 946).'I suggested that the genera Obregonia Fric and Strombocactus B. & R. should be united with Ariocarpus because these genera shared, in common with Ariocarpus, the characters of horny tubercles, rosette arrangement, relatively small central flowers from the wool bearing central areoles and smooth fruit almost hidden in the wool. In Cactaceae 134 (1941), I suggested that the genus Encephalocarpus, which also shared all of these common factors should also be united with Ariocarpus'.

Ariocarpus Scheidweiler

Bull. Aced. Sci. Brux. 5:491 (1838).

[Anhalonium Lemaire, Cact. Gen. Nov. Sp. 1, 1839, p.p; Pelecyphora Ehrenberg, Bot. Zeit. 1:737 (1843); gen.Mammillaria Haworth subg. Anhalonium (Lem.) Engler in Emory, Cact. Bound. 17, P1. 16(1859); Strombocactus Britton et Rose, Cactaceae 3:106(1922); Roseocactus Berger, J. Wash. Aced. Sci. 15:45 (1925); Obregonia Fric, Zivot v prirode 29:14 (1925); Encephalocarpus Berger, Kakteen 332 z91 929); Neogomesia Castaneda, Cact. Succ. J. Amer. 13:98 (1941)].

subg. Ariocarpus

Tubercula trigona vel squamata, cartilaginea.

Ariocarpus scapharostrus Boedeker, Monats. Deutsch. Kakt. 1:60(1930).

Ariocarpus kotschoubeyanus (Lemaire) Schumann in EngleretPrantl, Pflanzenf. Nachtr. 259(1897).

subsp. kotschoubeyanus

var. kotschoubeyanus

[Anhalonium kotschoubeyanum Lem. in Cels, Cat. Bull. Cercle Conf. Hort. Dep. Seine (1842); Anhalonium fissipedum Monville, Cat. (1846); Anhalonium kotschubeyi Lem. ex SaIm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck (1849): 5 (1850); Anhalonium sulcatum Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck (1849): 78 (1850); Stromatocarpus kotschoubeyi Karwinsky ex Lem., lllustr. Hort. 16:72 (1869); Stromatocactus kotschoubey Karw. ex Ruempler in Foerster, Handb. Cact. 2a: 232 (1886); Cactus kotschoubey Kuntze, Rev. Gen. P1. 1:260(1891); Ariocarpus sulcatus Schum. in Engler andPrantl, Nat. Pflanzenf. 3, 6a:195 (1894); Ariocarpus kotschobeyanus Cobbold, J. Hort. Cact.Gard. Home Farm. 3,64:332 (1903); Roseocactus kotschoubeyanus (Lem.) Berger, J. Wash.Acad. 15:43 (1925); Stromatocactus kotschoubeyi Karw. ex Backbg., Cactaceae 5:3070 (1961)].

var. macdowellii (Marsh. ex Krainz) Krainz, Die Kakteen CVlllb.

[Ariocarpus macdowellii Marshall In Marshall and Bock, Cactaceae 135 (1941), nom. nud; Roseocactus kotschoubeyanus ssp. macdowellii (Marsh.) Bsckbg., Blatt. Kakt. 1:8 (1949), comb. nud; Roseocactus kotschoubeyanus (Lem.) Berg. var. macdowellii (Marsh.) Backbg., Cactaceae 5:3075 (1961)].

subsp. tulensis J.J. Halda nom. nov.

[Roseocactus kotschoubeyanus (Lem.) Berger var. albiflorus Backbg., Kakteenfr. 4:66 (1935), sine descr. lat; Roseocactus kotschoubeyanus sep. albiflorus (Backbg.) Backbg., Blat. Sukk. 1:8 (1949), comb. nud; Roseocactus kotschoubeyanus (Lem.) Berg. var. albiflorus Backbg., Cact. Succ. J. Amer. 13:151 (1951)].

subsp. bravoanus (H. Hemandez & E. F. Anderson) Halda stat. nov.

[A. bravoanus H. Hemandez & E. F. Anderson In Bradleya 10:1 (1992)].

subsp. agavoides (Castaneda) J. J. Halda stat. nov.

[Neogomesia agavoides Castaneda, Cact. Succ. J. Amer. 13:98 (1941);

Ariocarpus agavoides (Castaneda) Anderson, Amer. J. Bot. 49:615 (1962)].

Ariocarpus fissuratus (Engelmann) Schumann in Engler and Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 3, 6a:15, 9 (1891).

subsp. fissuratus

var. fissuratus

[Mammillaria fissurata Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Mad. 3:270(1856); Anhalonium fissuratum Engelmann, Cact. Mex. Bound. 75(1859); Anhalonium engelmannii Lemaire, Cactees42 (1868); Roseocactus fissuratus (Engelmann) Berger, J. Wash. Mad. 15:45 (1925)].

var. lloydii (Rose) Marshall, Cact. Succ. J. Amer. 18(4):56 (1946).

[Ariocarpus lloydii Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 13:308(1911); Ariocarpus lloydii var. major Fric, Zivot v prirode 29:15 (1926); Roseocactus lloydii (Rose) Berger, J. Wash. Mad. 5:43 (1925); Ariocarpus fissuratus var. lloydii (Rose) Marshall in Marshall and Bock, Cactaceae 135 (1941), comb. nud; Roseocactus intermedius Backbg. and Kilian, Kakt. Sukk. 11(1 0):149 (1960)].

subsp. hintonii (W. Stuppy & N. P. Taylor) Halda stat. nov.

[A. fissuratus (Engelm.) K. Schum. var. hintonii W. Stuppy & N. P. Taylor in Bradleya 7:84 (1989)].

Ariocarpus retusus Scheidweiler, Bull. Aced. Sd. Brux. 5:492 (1838).

subsp. retusus

[Anhalonium prismaticum Lemaire, Cact. Gen. Nov. Sp. 1 (1839); Anhalonium retusum SaIm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck (1844)5,77(1844); Anhalonium elongatum Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck (1849)5,77(1850); Mammillaria aloides Monville ex Labouret, Monogr. Cact. 153(1853), nom. nud; Anhalonium areolosum Lem., lllustr. Hort. 6, Misc. 35 (1859); Anhalonium pulvilligerum Lem., Illustr. Hort. 16:72 (1869); Mammillaria aloides pulvilligera Monv. ex Lem., lllustr. Hort. 16:72(1869); Mammillaria areolosa Hemsley, Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 1:503 (188)); Mammillaria elongata Hemsley, Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 1:509 (1880); Mammillaria prismatica Hemsley, Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 1:519(1880); Mammilaria furfuracea S. Watson, Proc. Amer. Aced. 25:150 (1890); Cactus prismaticus Kuntze, Rev. Gen. P1. 1:261 (1891); Anhalonium furfuraceum Coulter, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 3:130 (1894); Ariocarpus furfuraceus (S. Wats.) Thompson. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 9:130 (1 898); Ariocarpus pulviliigeris Schumann ex Engler, Bot. Jahrb. 24:550(1898); Ariocarpus prismaticus Cobbold, J. Hort. Cot. Gard. Home. Farm. 3, 46:332 (1903); Ariocarpus furfuraceus (S. Wats.) Thomps. var. rostratus Berger, Kakteen 334 (1929); Ariocarpus elongatus (SaIm-Dyck) Wittstein, Kakteenkunde 13 (1933); Ariocarpus retusus Scheidw. var. furfuraceus (S. Wats.) Frank in Krainz, Die Kakteen CVlllb, 1. 10(1975)].

subsp. scapharostroides Halda and Horacek in Cactaceae etc. 3,97:97(1997).

Ariocarpus confusus J. J. Halda and L Horacek in Cactaceae etc. 1,97:4(1997).

Ariocarpus elongatus (SaIm-Dyck) Wettstein emend. Halda emend.nov.

( A brief note explaining his reasons for resurrecting the name A. elongatus, in preference to A. trigonus (in Czech) appears here in the original paper.)

subsp. elongatus

subsp. horaceki J. J. Halda stat. nov.

[bas: A. trigonus Schumann var. horaceki Halda in Cactaceae etc. 3/97:98 (1997).

subg. Obregonia J. J. Halda subg. nov.

[bas: Obregonia Fric, Zivot v prirode 29(2):14 (1925) pro gen.J.

Corpus subglobosum; tubercula elongata, truncata; areola apicalis, spinosa.

Stem subglobose; tubercles elongate, truncate; apical areola spined.

Type: A. denegrii (Fric) Marshall.

Ariocarpus denegrii (Fric) Marshall, Cact. Succ. J. Amer. 18(4):56 (1946).

[Obregonia denegrii Fric, Zivot v prirode 29(2):14 (1925); Strombocactus denegrii (Fric) Rowley in Repert. P1. Succ. (lOS.) 23:9 (1972, publ. 1974), without basionym date).

subg. Strombocactus (Britton & Rose) J. J. Halda subg. nov.

[bas: Strombocactus Britton & Rose, Cactaceae 3:106(1922), pro gen.; Ariocarpus Scheidw. emend. Marshall, Cact. Succ. J. Am. 18(4):55 (1946), pp.].

Corpus disciformis; tubercula rhomboideo-squamosa; semen parvum. Stem disciform; tubercles rhomboid-squamose; seed tiny.

Type:A. disciformis (DC.) Marshall.

Ariocarpus disciformis (DC.) Marshall, Cact. Succ. J. Amer. 18:56 (1946).

subsp. disciformis

[Mammillaria disciformis DC., Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 17:114 (1828); Echinocactus turbiniformis Pfeitfer, AlIg. Gartenz. 6:275 (1838); Echinofossulocactus turbiniformis Lawrence in Loudon, Gard. Mag. 17:318 (1841); Mammillaria turbinata Hooker in Curtis, Bot. Mag. 69:3984 (1843); Cactus disciformis Kuntze, Rev. Gen. P1. 1:260 (1891); Cactus turbinatus Kuntze, Rev. Gen. P1. 1:261 (1891); Anhalonium turbiniforme Weber in Bois, Dict. Hort. 90 (1893); Echinocactus disciformis Schumann in Engler and Pranti, Pflanzenfam. 36a:1 89 (1894); Strombocactus disciformis (DC.) Britton and Rose, Cactaceae 3:106 (1922); Strombocactus (Turbinicarpus) disciformis (DC.) Backbg., Blat. Kakt. 1 (1936)].

subsp. jarmilae (J. J. Halda) J. J. Halda stat. nov.

[bas: Strombocactus jarmilae J. J. Halda in Cactaceae etc. 3:83(1996); S. disciformis subsp. jarmilae (J. J. Halda) J. J. Halda in Acta Mus. Richnov. 4:71 (1997)).

Ariocarpus pulcherrimus (J. J. Halda) J. J. Halda stat. nov.

[Strombocactus pulcherrimus J. J. Halda in Cactaceae etc. 3:88 (1996); S. disciformis subsp. esperanzae Glass and Arias, Cact. Succ. J. GB. 47,vol.14 (4):200-204(1996)].

subg. Pelecyphora (Ehrenberg)

J.J. Halda subg. nov.

[Pelecyphora Ehrenberg, Bat. Zeit. 1:737(1843) pro gen.; Encephalocarpus Berger, Kakteen 332 (1929) pro gen.].

Caulibus adpressis; corpus simplex; tubercula aselliformis vel imbricata.

Acta Mus. Rlchnov., Sect. natur. 5(1):1-48, 1998 38

sect. Pelecyphora

Tubercula aselliformis, non Imbricata.

Tubercles aselliform, not imbricate.

Type: A. aselliformls (Ehrenberg) Web.

Ariocarpus aselliformis (Ehrenberg)Web. in Bois, Dict. Hort. 931 (1898).

[Pelecyphora aselliformis Ehrenberg, Bot. Zeit. 1:737 (1843); Pelecyphora aselliformis con color Hooker in Curtis, Bot. Mag. 99:6061 (1873), nom. nud; Mammullaria aselliforrnis W. Watson, Cact. Cult. 188(1889); Mammillaria asellifera Monville ex Weber in Bois, Dict. Hort. 931 (1898); Anhalonium aselliforme Web. in Bois, Dict. Hort. 931 (1898); Pelecyphora aselliformis grandiflora Haage Jr., Kakt. Kultur 2a:206 (1900)].

sect.Encephalocarpus (Berger) J. J. Halda sect. nov.

[bas: Encephalocarpus Berger, Kakteen 332 (1929), pro gen.]. Tubercula imbrkata, trigona.

Tubercles imbricate, trigonous.

Type: A. strobiliformis (Werd.) Berger.

Ariocarpus. strobiliformis Werd., Zeits. Sukk. 3:126 (1927).

[Encephalocarpus strobiliformis (Werd.) Berger, Kakteen 332 (1929); Pelecyphora strobliformis (Werderm.) Fric and Scheele in Kreuzlnger, Verzeichnis 9 (1935)].


Anderson, E. F. (1958): A recent field trip in search of Ariocarpus. Cact. Succ. J. (U.S.) 30:171-174.

(1960-64): A revision of Ariocarpus. Am. J. Bot. 47:582-89; 49:61.5-22; 50:724-32; 51:144-51.

(1961): A study of the proposed genus Roseocactus. Cact. & Succ. J. (U.S.)33:122-27.

(1965): A taxonomic revision of Ariocarpus. Cact. Succ. J. (U.S.) 37:39-49.

Benson, L (1982): The Cacti of the United States and Canada. Stanford University Press.

Boke, N.H. (1959): Endomorphic and ectomorphic characters In Pelecyphora and Encephalocarpus. Am. J. Bot. 46:197-209.

Borg, J. (1937): Cacti

Bravo-Hollis, H. (1978): Las Cactaceas de Mexico, ed. 2, 2.

Britton, N. L & Rose, J. N. (1924): The Cactaceae 4.

Fric, A. V.(1925): Zeits. f. Sukkulent. 35:184.

Hernandez, H. & Anderson, E. F. (1992): A new species of Ariocarpus. Bradleya 10:1.

Hunt, D. R. (1967). In Hutchinson, J.: The Genera of flowering Plants 2 [Cactaceae:427-467].

Linnaeus, C. (1753): Species Plantarum.

Marshall, W. T. (1946): Revision of the genus Ariocarpus. Cact. & Succ. J. (U.S.) 18(4):55.

Stuppy, W. & Taylor, N. P. (1989): A new variety of Ariocarpus fissuratus. Bradleya 7:84.


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